Glaucoma is a disease of the major eye nerve that is the optic nerve, the optic nerve is responsible for transmitting signals to the brain and this signal then results in our vision. It can be identified by the damage to the optic nerve that results initially in the loss of side vision and later causes blindness if not treated properly or not on time.
Glaucoma causes irreversible blindness, and it is also the second-largest of causing blindness in the world. It is caused by the elevated pressure in the optic nerve and blocks the proper flow of blood into it. When the pressure is too low the eye becomes softer and due to an increase in pressure it causes hardness to the eye and the fibers of the optic nerve are likely to damage due to this high elevated pressure.
Risk Factors of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is known as a sneaky thief of sight because it causes destroy sight and blindness without any obvious or common symptoms. Proper detection and treatment can save certain people their eyesight. There are some factors that can cause glaucoma:
- Over 45 years of age.
- The Ancestral history of glaucoma.
- History of elevated pressure.
- Any eye accident.
Types of Glaucoma
There are 2 main types of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma, and close-angle glaucoma. Glaucoma usually affects both of the eyes, the result of glaucoma occurs only in one eye if there is a history of injury, medication, and use of steroids in that eye.
There are several types of open-angle glaucoma that we will discuss in our article.
- Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.
It is the most common type of glaucoma that happens in people with old age, this is caused by the improper working of the drainage system of the eye. This factor results in the clogging of aqueous fluid that is supposed to exit from the eyes. Due to blocking and clogging this fluid causes pressure in the eyes and can gradually cause loss of eyesight.
- Normal or Low Tension Glaucoma
This type of glaucoma can be caused by the low amount of blood pressure that is being transferred to the optic nerve. A Low amount of blood in the nerve can cause nerve damage and may result in damaging eyesight. This can be treated by proper and regular consultation with a doctor.
- Congenital Glaucoma
This type of glaucoma is not rare like open-angle glaucoma, but it is a type that happens due to the drainage area that is not fully developed when a baby is born, it causes the baby’s eyes to enlarge in size due to pressure inside the eye. Detection and treatment can save eyesight on the time of an infant.
- Secondary Open-Angle Glaucoma
This is mainly caused by an eye injury, use of steroids, and inflammation of the iris due to diabetes. It can also detach the retina from the eye and cause blockage for the draining system of the eye. The treatments of this glaucoma vary according to their cause.
This type of glaucoma is most common in Asian countries, this glaucoma is mostly caused to people having small eyes, because of small eyes drainage system of the eye is also small and sometimes gets blocked because of various impacts like usage of medications that result in dilation of pupils, sometimes it gets trigger because of dark environment like theaters when pupils dilate to let light enter. The main symptoms of close-angle glaucoma are vomiting, severe eye pain, headache, inflammation in the eye, sometimes a person with angle-closure glaucoma encounters halo when exposed to bright light. This can be treated by several medical consultations and surgeries to let the drainage system work properly.
The people facing close-angle or open-angle glaucoma does not face any early symptoms, glaucoma gradually causes side vision loss and irritation to the eyes by bright lights. There are some symptoms that are visible in a person with glaucoma.
- Redness of eye(s)
- Blur in Vision
The pupil also does not react to light by becoming large and small.